With a rapid increase in the rate of cyber attacks, it is of utter importance to protect all forms of confidential data as much as possible.
Data leakage can lead to a serious loss for various businesses and can also turn out to be a threat for a person where the credit card, as well as bank details, are breached.
The term cryptography is linked with the technique used for converting plain and ordinary text into unintelligible forms.
With this method, transmission and storage of sensitive data become a lot easier.
Only those to whom the message is intended can process the text and read it. It is not only helpful in protecting data from breaching or theft but it is also useful for data authentication.
In the world of computer science, cryptography is associated with securing all forms of information along with the techniques of communication which are derived from the concepts of mathematics.
It uses a definite set of ruled calculations which are known as algorithms. The algorithms are used for transforming the messages in such a way that it becomes very hard to decipher the same.
Such algorithms of deterministic character are used in the generation of cryptographic keys along with digital signing for protecting the privacy of data, browsing various websites on the internet, and for sensitive communications like email and credit card or bank transaction details.
What are the Techniques of cryptography?
The technique of cryptography includes the usage of various techniques like merging of words with various images, microdots, and several other techniques which are used for hiding that information that is in transit or storage.
However, in the world of computers today, the technique of cryptography is often linked with the process of scrambling ordinary text or cleartext. Such a form of ordinary text is known as plaintext.
The plaintext is converted into ciphertext with the process of encryption and then back to the original form with the help of decryption.
The people who specialize in the field of cryptography are called cryptographers.
Objectives of cryptography
The modern-day objectives of cryptography are as follows:
Confidentiality: Confidentiality is the act of keeping all forms of personal and sensitive data protected for the concerned people.
The information which is being transmitted or stored cannot be analyzed or understood by any third party for whom it was not at all intended.
Integrity: The data or information which is being transmitted or stored cannot be changed or altered between the sender and the receiver who is intended to receive the data. In case any form of alteration is made, the sender and receiver will both be notified.
Non-repudiation: The sender, as well as the creator of the data or information, will not be allowed to deny his/her intentions at a later stage during the creation of transportation of the data or information.
Authentication: Both the parties in communication who are the sender and the receiver will have the capability of confirming the identity of each other along with the origin and final destination of the data.
The protocols and the procedures that meet all of the mentioned objectives and criteria are called cryptosystems.
The cryptosystems are often taken as only referring to the procedure of mathematics and programs of computers only.
However, in actuality, they also comprise human behavior regulation like logging off from the systems which are not used, choosing strong and difficult to guess passwords while logging in, and not discussing any form of sensitive data and procedure with the outside world.
What Are the Algorithms of cryptography?
The cryptosystems work along with a bunch of procedures called ciphers or cryptographic algorithms.
It is being used to encrypt as well as for decrypting the messages for securing the communications among smartphones, applications, and other computer systems. A suite of ciphers uses up one single algorithm for encryption, one more algorithm for authentication of messages, and another algorithm for the exchange of keys.
This whole process is embedded within the protocols and is written within the programming of software that runs on the OS along with the computer systems which are based on the network.
It also involves the generation of the public as well as the private key for the process of encryption as well as decryption of data, verification for message authentication, digital signing along with the exchange of keys.
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What is Cryptography? and its types!
Various types of cryptography are being used today.
Encryption using a single key or symmetric key: The algorithms of this form of cryptography create block ciphers which are particular lengths of bits.
The block cipher comes along with one secret key that the sender uses for encrypting the data. The same key can be used by the receiver for deciphering the information.
AES or Advanced Encryption Standard is a type of symmetric key encryption which was launched by the NIST as Federal Information Processing Standard or FIPS 197 in the year 2001.
It is being used for the protection of confidential and sensitive data. In the year 2003, the U.S. government approved AES for classified information.
AES is a form of specification which is free from royalty and is used in all forms of hardware and software in the whole world. AES succeeded DES and DES3.
AES uses up longer lengths of keys for preventing attacks.
Encryption using public key or asymmetric key: The algorithms for this form of cryptography use two keys at a time in pair. One public key is associated along with the sender and the receiver to encrypt the information.
Another private key is used for the decryption of the message. The private key is only known to the originator.
There are various forms of cryptography using a public key like RSA which is used all over the internet, ECDSA which is being used by Bitcoin, and DSA which has been adopted as FIPS for all forms of digital signatures by the NIST.
Hash functions: To maintain the integrity of data, hash functions are used that return an accepted value from the value which is used as input.
It is being used for mapping the data into a fixed size of data. SHA-1, SHA-2, and SHA-3 are the types of hash functions.